Die Schlacht von Chibi (chinesisch 赤壁之戰 / 赤壁之战, Pinyin Chìbì zhī Zhàn), auch als Commons: Battle of Red Cliffs – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und. Red Cliff is set in ancient China. The young inexperienced Emporer allows his ambitious and dangerous general to declare war on the rebellious southern. Schlacht an den roten Klippen - Battle of Red Cliffs Für den Film, der auch als Die Schlacht von Red Cliff bekannt ist, siehe Red Cliff (Film).
Schlacht von ChibiDie Schlacht von Chibi (chinesisch 赤壁之戰 / 赤壁之战, Pinyin Chìbì zhī Zhàn), auch als Commons: Battle of Red Cliffs – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und. Oder ihr zeigt euren bekannten das „Mah-Jongg“ Kartenspiel von Ta-Te Wu „The Battle of Red Cliffs“, welches er in Essen nochmal. The Battle of Red Cliff (International) (working title) (English title). John Woo returns to Chinese Cinema for the highly anticipated all-star period war epic Red.
Battle Of Redcliff Navigation menu VideoBattle of the Red Cliffs - Three Kingdoms for China l HISTORY OF CHINA
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At the same time, his naval commanders Cai Mao and Zhang Yun propose a new tactic of interlocking the battleships together with iron beams to minimize rocking when sailing on the river and reduce the chances of the troops falling seasick.
The Eastern Wu forces look on as Liu Bei leaves the alliance. They agreed that whoever fails to complete his mission will be punished by execution under military law.
Zhuge Liang's ingenious strategy of borrowing of arrows with straw boats brought in over , arrows from the enemy and aroused Cao Cao's suspicions about the loyalty of Cai and Zhang towards him.
On the other hand, Cao Cao sends Jiang Gan to persuade Zhou Yu to surrender, but Zhou Yu tricks Jiang Gan instead, into believing that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are planning to assassinate their lord Cao Cao.
Both Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu's respective plans complement each other when Cao Cao is convinced, despite earlier having doubts about Jiang Gan's report, that Cai and Zhang were indeed planning to assassinate him by deliberately 'donating' arrows to the enemy.
Cai and Zhang are executed and Cao Cao realised his folly afterwards but it was too late. Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang decide to attack Cao Cao's navy with fire after knowing that there is a special climatic condition known only to Eastern Wu's forces, that the South-East Wind to their advantage would blow sometime soon.
As the Eastern Wu forces made preparations for the fire attack, Huang Gai proposes to Zhou Yu the Self-Torture Ruse to increase their chances of success, but Zhou Yu does not heed it.
Before the battle, the forces of Eastern Wu have a final moment together, feasting on glutinous rice balls to celebrate the Winter Festival. Meanwhile, Zhou Yu's wife Xiao Qiao heads towards Cao Cao's camp alone secretly, in hope of persuading Cao Cao to give up his ambitious plans but she fails and decides to distract him instead to buy time for the Eastern Wu forces.
The battle begins when the South-East Wind starts blowing in the middle of the night and the Eastern Wu forces launch their full-scale attack on Cao Cao's navy.
On the other hand, Liu Bei's forces, which had apparently left the alliance, start attacking Cao Cao's forts on land. The allied forces launch another offensive on Cao Cao's ground army, stationed in his forts, and succeeded in breaking through using testudo formation despite suffering heavy casualties.
Although Cao Cao is besieged in his main camp, he manages to holds Zhou Yu hostage after catching him off guard together with Cao Hong.
Xiahou Jun appears as well holding Xiao Qiao hostage and causes the allied forces to hesitate. In the nick of time, Zhao Yun manages to reverse the situation by rescuing Xiao Qiao with a surprise attack and put Cao Cao at the mercy of the allied forces instead.
Eventually, the allied forces decide to spare Cao Cao's life and tell him never to return before leaving for home. In the final scenes, Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang are seen having a final conversation before Zhuge Liang walks away into the far distance with the newborn foal Mengmeng.
To commemorate these trips, Su wrote two rhapsodies that would earn him universal praise in the annals of Chinese literature: "Odes to the Red Cliff.
In his rhapsodies Su yearned nostalgically for the daring bravura of heroes who fought at Red Cliff centuries earlier, while also facing the realities of life's brevity and the hypocritical nature of people.
Consequently, he was able to develop a clear and philosophical form of critical self-examination on the aspects of change and permanence. It was exactly the predicaments of his personal difficulties at this time that made it possible for Su to see through the veil of history and make the trips to his Red Cliff passed down and commemorated through the ages.
For example, dramas based on stories revolving around Su Shi and Red Cliff were produced in great numbers during the following Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties.
Countless calligraphers also repeatedly transcribed Su's two rhapsodies on Red Cliff, which likewise became popular among painters wishing to illustrate and celebrate Su Shi.
Yet he was not the first one to have told the story of the Three Kingdoms and Red Cliff. The narrative tradition started with Cheng Shou's History of the Three Kingdoms, a historian's account written in the Jin dynasty when China was reunified by the house of Sima.
Some even engaged renowned writers such as Li Zhi, Zhong Xing, Li Yu, and Mao Zonggang for annotation, boosting the social status of the novel and its reading.
It won such rave review and was so enthusiastically received that Li Yu and Jin Shengtan ranked it as the "Top of the Four Wonder Books", and a "Most Brilliant Writing of Talent and Taste".
Twice he was exiled for his sharp criticisms of imperial policy. Su is also one of the most noted poets of the Northern Song period.
The following short essay describes a small boat party on the Yangzi River. The boat-trip took place at Red Cliff, traditionally thought to be the place where Cao Cao a disastrous defeat at the hands of his enemies, Liu Bei and Sun Chuan, in He holds a particularly revered position in Chinese literary history, and ranks as one of the Four Song Masters in calligraphy, while being the first scholar to create the scholar painting in Chinese painting history.
He is one of the most important literary masters in the Northern Song period. Su had a very unstable career as a government official, and was exiled from court that resulted from the Wutai Poem Incident to Huangzhow in the 2nd Year of Yuan Feng This marked a turning point in his life and work, and the Former and Latter Odes to the Red Cliff were representative works from this period.
The Ode depicted Su and his friends travelling on a small boat to visit the Red Nose Cliff just outside Huangzhow city on July 16 in the 5th Year of Yuan Feng , and recalled the Battle of Red Cliff when Sun Quan won victory over the Cao army during the times of the Three Kingdoms; through this Ode, Su expressed his views about the universe and life in general.
From Su's particular reminders of "living in fear of more troubles", and "by your love for me, you will hold this Ode in secrecy", one has a sense of Su's fear as a result of being implicated in the emperor's displeasure over writings.
The entire scroll is composed in regular script, the characters broad and tightly written, the brushstrokes full and smooth, showing that Su had achieved perfect harmony between the elegant flow in the style of the Two Wang Masters that he learned from in his early years, and the more heavy simplicity in the style of Yen Zhenqing that he learned in his middle ages.
A cool wind blew gently, without starting a ripple. I raised my cup to pledge the guests; and we chanted the Full Moon ode, and sang out the verse about the modest lady.
After a while the moon came up above the hills to the east, and wandered between the Dipper and the Herdboy Star; a dewy whiteness spanned the river, merging the light on the water into the sky.
We let the tiny reed drift on its course, over ten thousand acres of dissolving surface which streamed to the horizon, as though we were leaning on the void with the winds for chariot, on a journey none knew where, hovering above as though we had left the world of men behind us and risen as immortals on newly sprouted wings.
So far, the one I yearn for, The girl up there at the other end of the sky! The notes were like sobs, as though he were complaining, longing, weeping, accusing; the wavering resonance lingered, a thread of sound which did not snap off, till the dragons underwater danced in the black depths, and a widow wept in our lonely boat.
At the time when he smote Ching. And what are you and I compared with him? Let me cling to a flying immortal and roam far off, and live forever with the full moon in my arms!
But knowing that this art is not easily learned, I commit the fading echoes to the sad wind. For if you look at the aspect which changes, heaven and earth cannot last for one blink; but if you look at the aspect which is changeless, the worlds within and outside you are both inexhaustible, and what reasons have you to envy anything?
Only the cool wind on the river, or the full moon in the mountains, caught by the ear becomes a sound, or met by the eye changes to colour; no one forbids me to make it mine, no limit is set to the use of it; this is the inexhaustible treasury of the creator of things, and you and I can share in the joy of it.
We washed the cups and poured more wine. After the nuts and savouries were finished, and the wine. The printing process was extremely careful, having particularly procured ancient editions, made corrections and annotations and cross-checked the references, as well as commissioned the famous type cutters of Nanking - Wan Xiyao and Wei Shaofeng - to cut the type.
A large number of men and horses either burned to death or drowned Chen c. Following the initial shock, Zhou Yu and the allies led a lightly armed force to capitalise on the assault.
The northern army was thrown into confusion and was utterly defeated. Seeing the situation was hopeless, Cao Cao then issued a general order of retreat and destroyed a number of his remaining ships before withdrawing Chen c.
Cao Cao's army attempted a retreat along Huarong Road, including a long stretch passing through marshlands north of Dongting Lake.
Heavy rains had made the road so treacherous that many of the sick soldiers had to carry bundles of grass on their backs and use them to fill the road to allow the horsemen to cross.
Many of these soldiers drowned in the mud or were trampled to death in the effort. The allies, led by Zhou Yu and Liu Bei, gave chase over land and water until they reached Nan Commandery ; combined with famine and disease, this decimated Cao Cao's remaining forces.
Cao Cao then retreated north to his home base of Ye , leaving Cao Ren and Xu Huang to guard Jiangling, Yue Jin stationed in Xiangyang , and Man Chong in Dangyang Chen c.
The allied counterattack might have vanquished Cao Cao and his forces entirely. However, the crossing of the Yangtze River dissolved into chaos as the allied armies converged on the riverbank and fought over the limited number of ferries.
To restore order, a detachment led by Sun Quan's general Gan Ning established a bridgehead in Yiling to the north, and only a staunch rearguard action by Cao Ren prevented further catastrophe Eikenberry ; de Crespigny A combination of Cao Cao's strategic errors and the effectiveness of Huang Gai's ruse had resulted in the allied victory at the Battle of Red Cliffs.
Zhou Yu had previously observed that Cao Cao's generals and soldiers were mostly cavalry and infantry, and few had any experience in naval warfare.
Cao Cao also had little support among the people of Jing Province , and thus lacked a secure forward base of operations Eikenberry Despite the strategic acumen Cao Cao had displayed in earlier campaigns and battles, in this case he had simply assumed that numerical superiority would eventually defeat the Sun and Liu navy.
Cao's first tactical mistake was converting his massive army of infantry and cavalry into a marine corps and navy: with only a few days of drills before the battle, Cao Cao's troops were ravaged by sea-sickness and lack of experience on water.
Tropical diseases, to which the southerners were largely immune, were also rampant in Cao Cao's camps. Although numerous, Cao Cao's men were already exhausted by the unfamiliar environment and the extended southern campaign, as Zhuge Liang observed: "Even a powerful arrow at the end of its flight cannot penetrate a silk cloth" Military Documents A key advisor, Jia Xu , had recommended after the surrender of Liu Cong that the overtaxed armies be given time to rest and replenish before engaging the armies of Sun Quan and Liu Bei, but Cao Cao disregarded the advice Eikenberry Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: " It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself.
By the end of , the post Cao Cao had established at Jiangling fell to Zhou Yu. Liu Bei gained territory by taking over the four commanderies Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang south of the Yangtze River.
Sun Quan's troops had suffered far greater casualties than Liu Bei's in the extended conflict against Cao Ren following the Battle of Red Cliffs and the death of Zhou Yu in resulted in a drastic weakening of Sun Quan's strength in Jing Province de Crespigny —92, Liu Bei also occupied Jing Province that Cao Cao had recently lost—a strategic and naturally fortified area on the Yangtze River that Sun Quan claimed for himself.
The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province and important waterways into Wu southeastern China and dominion of the southern Yangtze River.
Never again would Cao Cao command so large a fleet as he had at Jiangling, nor would a similar opportunity to destroy his southern rivals present itself again de Crespigny The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing Province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley and foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility that would continue for centuries de Crespigny The precise location of the Red Cliffs battlefield has long been the subject of both popular and academic debates, but has never been conclusively established.
There are clear grounds for rejecting at least some of these proposals, but four alternative locations are still advocated. According to Zhang , many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties Zhang The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries.
For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan, south of the Yangtze, in the 3rd century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze Zhang ; de Crespigny 78n.
Historical records state that Cao Cao's forces retreated north across the Yangtze after the initial engagement at Red Cliffs, unequivocally placing the battle site on the south bank of the Yangtze.
For this reason, a number of sites on the north bank have been discounted by historians and geographers. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield.
The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean with northeast and southeast meanders , Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream.
The westernmost boundary is also clear, since Cao Cao's eastern advance from Jiangling included passing Baqiu present-day Yueyang , Hunan on the shore of Dongting Lake.
Cao Cao orders the corpses to be sent on floating rafts to the allies' camp, in the hope of spreading the plague to his enemies. The allied army's morale is affected when some unsuspecting soldiers let the plague in.
Eventually, a disheartened Liu Bei leaves with his forces while Zhuge Liang stays behind to assist Sun Quan. Cao Cao is overjoyed when he hears that the alliance has collapsed.
At the same time, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun propose a new tactic of interlocking the battleships with iron beams to minimise rocking when sailing on the river and reduce the chances of the troops falling seasick.
Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang make plans to eliminate Cai Mao and Zhang Yun and produce , arrows respectively. They agreed that whoever fails to complete his mission shall be executed under military law.
Zhuge Liang's strategy of letting the enemy shoot 20 boats covered in straw brings in over , arrows from the enemy and makes Cao Cao doubt the loyalty of Cai Mao and Zhang Yun.
On the other hand, Cao Cao sends Jiang Gan to persuade Zhou Yu to surrender, but Zhou tricks Jiang Gan into believing that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are planning to assassinate Cao Cao.
Both Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu's respective plans complement each other when Cao Cao is convinced, despite having earlier doubts about Jiang Gan's report, that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun were indeed planning to assassinate him by deliberately "donating" arrows to the enemy.
Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are executed only for Cao Cao to realize his folly afterwards. Sun Shangxiang returns to base from Cao Cao's camp with a map of the enemy formation.
Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang decide to attack Cao Cao's navy with fire after predicting that a special climatic condition will soon cause the winds to blow from the southeast — a direction to their advantage.
Before the battle, Sun Quan's forces feast on rice dumplings to celebrate the Winter Solstice. Meanwhile, Zhou Yu's wife, Xiaoqiao , heads towards Cao Cao's camp alone secretly in the hope of persuading Cao to give up his ambitious plans.
She fails to convince Cao Cao and decides to distract him with an elaborate tea ceremony to buy time for her side.
The battle begins when the southeast wind starts blowing in the middle of the night. Sun Quan's forces launch their attack on Cao Cao's navy by ramming smaller boats that are set aflame into Cao's larger battleships.
On the other hand, Liu Bei's forces, whose departure from the alliance was a ruse, start attacking Cao Cao's forts on land. By dawn, Cao Cao's entire navy has been destroyed.
The allies launch another offensive on Cao Cao's ground army in his forts and succeed in breaking through using testudo formation despite suffering heavy casualties.
Although Cao Cao is besieged in his main camp, he manages to hold Zhou Yu at sword point after ambushing him with the help of Cao Hong.
Xiahou Jun also shows up with Xiaoqiao as a hostage and threatens to kill her if the allies do not surrender.
Just then, Zhao Yun manages to reverse the situation by rescuing Xiaoqiao with a surprise attack, while Sun Quan fires an arrow that grazes the top of Cao Cao's head and causes his hair to be let loose.
Cao Cao is now at the mercy of the allies, but they spare his life and leave. In the final scene, Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang have a final conversation before Zhuge walks away into the far distance with the newborn foal Mengmeng.
For the non-Asian releases, the film was shortened from minutes to minutes and was released in some countries under the title Battle of Red Cliff.
An opening narration in American English provides the historical background, whereas in the Asian release, a more brief description of the context of the political situation appears in scrolling form ten minutes into the film.
Notable cuts include the background and motivations behind Zhuge Liang's plan to obtain , arrows, including the threat to his life, and the early parts of Sun Shangxiang's infiltration, where she befriended a northern soldier Sun Shucai though the scene where she mourns Sun's death was not cut.
The tiger hunting scene was also cut from the non-Asian releases. The original two-part minute English version was released as a two-disc set on DVD and Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on 5 October ,  and in the United States and Canada on 23 March Ken Watanabe was originally selected for the role of Cao Cao.
The report claimed that the protests influenced the decision of director John Woo , who eventually chose Zhang Fengyi for the role.
Chow Yun-fat was originally selected for the role of Zhou Yu , and had even earlier been considered for the role of Liu Bei.
However, he pulled out on 13 April , just as shooting began. Chow explained that he received a revised script a week earlier and was not given sufficient time to prepare, but producer Terence Chang disputed this, saying that he could not work with Chow because the film's Hollywood insurer opposed 73 clauses in Chow's contract.
Principal photography commenced in mid-April On 9 June , a stuntman was killed in a freak fire accident, which also left six others injured.Ein weiterer Kandidat ist Wuhander Merkur Spiele Codes Jangtse am Zusammenfluss der Flüsse Jangtse und Han überspannt. De La Ri. In Essen war Ta-Te-Wu leider nicht. Die Originalfassung besteht aus zwei Teilen und ist Minuten lang.